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Medicinal plants: photo, video, name, description, medicinal properties

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  • In the book version

    Volume 17. Moscow, 2010, pp. 193-196

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  • MEDICINAL PLANTS, wild-growing and cultivated plants used for the prevention and treatment of human and animal diseases. On the globe are used approx. 20,000 species of L. p. Their use has been known since antiquity. The most extensive are the groups of L. p. Used in the bunks. and tradition. medicine of different countries - Arab, Indian (including Ayurvedic), Chinese, Tibetan, Iranian and others. Representatives of these groups L. r., studied experimentally and past the clinic. tests are introduced into the scientific. medicine called. official (from lat. officina - pharmacy). Their use is carried out on the basis of regulatory documents approved by the state. bodies. The most important L. p. are included in the state. Pharmacopoeia decomp. countries. In Russia, systematic. collection and cultivation L. r. were organized at the beginning. 17th century, after the formation of the Pharmaceutical Order. In all editions of the Russian (and USSR) state. Pharmacopoeia (currently the 11th ed.), there are 440 official species L. p. A treatment system with benefits. using L. p. called herbal medicine.

    Medicinal plants that can be grown in the country

    The group of medicinal plants that have a general sedative (sedative) effect includes a large number of aromatic herbs and shrubs. When used correctly, teas and infusions from these plants help to cope with stressful situations, get rid of insomnia, and eliminate or reduce nervous excitement.

    In addition, on the basis of infusions of medicinal herbs, you can make soothing baths, which are not only pleasant to take, but also beneficial for the nervous system. This article will talk about medicinal plantsthat can be grown on the site without much difficulty.

    Medicinal plants that can be grown on the site.

    Common hops: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other names common hop (Humulus lupulus) - curly hops, fragrant hops, beer hops.

    Perennial, grassy, ​​dioecious, winter-hardy vine. Overhead shoots up to 10 meters high die off with the onset of autumn frosts. The whole plant is covered with hairs and small hard spikes.

    The stem is tetrahedral, hollow. The leaf blade resembles grape leaves in its shape. The flowers are very small, light green in color. Flowering begins in July. The root system is powerful, rapidly growing. The thick rhizome has very long subordinate roots.

    Hops are very unpretentious, actively growing plant. In small gardens it can be difficult to restrain his “aggressiveness”. The growth rate is very high. Gives self-seeding.

    Reproduction Methods: division of the rhizome, root offspring, sowing seeds, cuttings.

    Hop is a very unpretentious, actively growing plant.

    Using the healing properties of common hop

    For medicinal purposes, cones (female inflorescences) of hops are used. Their collection begins at a time when the cone scales cease to be pure green and acquire a golden color. At the same time, they have a special aroma that not everyone likes. It is necessary to collect together with the stalks, so the cones remain whole. Too "open" cones do not collect, they contain a lot of seeds and few medicinal substances.

    Medicines based on hop cones help relieve nervous tension, anxiety.

    Decoctions, infusions, herbal teas, for example, with hawthorn flowers, fennel, lemon balm, are prepared from hops.

    For cooking decoction, which will help eliminate insomnia, take one tablespoon of chopped hop cones, pour a glass of boiling water and heat in a water bath for 15 minutes, filter after cooling. Take three times a day before meals, a quarter cup.

    Cones of ordinary hop.

    To improve sleep in the evening, drink warm milk infused with cones (two tablespoons of hops pour a glass of boiling milk, insist 10 minutes, filter) and add a spoonful of honey to it.

    Lavender officinalis: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other names lavender officinalis (Lavandula officinalis) – real lavender, narrow-leaved lavender.

    Lavender officinalis (Lavandula officinalis).

    Many types of lavender are used as medicinal plants, their properties are determined by the ratio of active substances present in them. The best calming properties are possessed by lavender officinalis, in which just the lowest camphor content, unlike broadleaf lavender (Lavandula latifolia) with its highest content.

    Description of the plant. Lavender officinalis is a perennial, evergreen, photophilous, thermophilic plant up to 60 cm high. The whole plant is covered with special stellate hairs.

    Leaves are sessile, lanceolate, grayish-green. The flowers are small, collected in spike-shaped inflorescences. Flowering begins in late July. The root system is superficial, well branched.

    It grows well in sunny areas, on light neutral or slightly alkaline drained warm soils. With excessive prolonged hydration dies.

    Plants are placed at a distance of 40 cm from each other, each bush should receive a maximum of light.

    Reproduction Methods: cuttings, sowing seeds (germination after a year of storage increases).

    Lavender tea is drunk in warm, shallow sips before bedtime.

    Using the healing properties of narrow-leaved lavender

    Lavender preparations are used for migraines, nervous excitement, irritability, insomnia, they help eliminate anxiety, anger and bad mood.

    Lavender flowers are harvested in cool, dry weather. Since the plant contains a large amount of essential oil, at least two weeks pass before it is completely dried.

    Alcohol tinctures, infusions, herbal teas, for example, with rose petals, three leaf leaves, sage, nutmeg, and oregano are prepared from lavender flowers.

    In case of sleep disturbance, a herbal preparation is prepared: lavender, hop cones or valerian, St. John's wort, spring primrose flowers are taken in equal parts. One teaspoon of the mixture is poured with a glass of boiling water, covered, insisted for 10 minutes, filtered. This herbal tea is drunk in warm, shallow sips before bedtime.

    Narrow-leaved medicinal fireweed: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other names narrow-leaved fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium L., Epilobium angustifolium L.) – Kuril tea, Koporsky tea.

    Narrow leaf fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium L).

    Description of the plant. A perennial, rhizome, photophilous plant with a height of 50 to 180 cm. The stem is straight and fairly stiff, slightly branched. The leaves are narrowly lanceolate, sessile or have tiny petioles. The lower part of the leaf blade is matte, as if it has a bluish coating.

    Flowering begins in June and lasts about two months. The fruit is a very narrow and long capsule with the smallest seeds (up to 1 mm). The root system is very strong, rapidly developing, goes to a depth of more than two meters, has a large number of kidneys.

    Recently, growing wild medicinal plants in the garden has become popular, and fireweed is no exception. It grows very well, and, most often, it is necessary to limit the "creep" of its countless shoots and prevent the ripening of seeds. In containers, even sufficiently voluminous, the fireweed feels bad.

    Reproduction Methods: division of rhizomes, seeds (germination persists up to 15 years), root offspring, cuttings.

    To relieve headaches and fatigue, tea is prepared from the leaves of the fireweed, which also contributes to good sleep.

    The use of the medicinal properties of narrow-leaved fireweed

    As a medicine, flowers and leaves are used, which begin to be collected in the phase of budding and the beginning of flowering. The flowers are dried separately from the leaves, laying out in one layer on a cotton cloth.

    Narrow-leaf fireweed drugs are used for insomnia, migraine, nervous diseases, to relieve stress and nervous excitement. Narrow leaf fireweed is a weak analgesic.

    Alcohol tinctures, infusions and herbal teas, for example, with red clover, with hawthorn flowers or with linden blossom, are prepared from fireweed.

    Common basil: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other names common basilica (Ocimum basilicum L.) – camphor basil, garden basil, sweet basil.

    Description of the plant. An annual, thermophilic plant up to 45 cm high. The stalk is tetrahedral, strongly branched. Both the stem and leaves are covered with small simple and glandular hairs with a high content of essential oil.

    The flowers are small, tubular, white-pink or white, collected in apical racemose inflorescences. The root system is superficial, weak.

    Basil grows quickly on light and well-warmed, fertile, loose soils. Since the plant is very thermophilic, it is better to grow it through seedlings. Basil seeds love to germinate in the light, seedlings appear after 10 days, if all this time the temperature was maintained at + 25 ... + 27 ° C. Basil is great for container growing.

    Reproduction Methods: cuttings, sowing seeds.

    The maximum amount of nutrients in the basil is accumulated by the time of its mass flowering.

    Use of medicinal properties of basil

    Among the abundance of fragrant and beautiful basilicas with medicinal purposes, only ordinary basil is used. Collect leaves, buds and flowers. A feature of this type of basil is that the maximum amount of nutrients in the plant accumulates by the time of its mass flowering.

    For medicinal purposes, both fresh and dry grass are used, although a significant amount of essential oils is lost during drying.

    Basil preparations relieve nervous tension, headache and dizziness well, calm and eliminate anxiety, normalize sleep, restore strength in case of chronic fatigue or after intense physical exertion. Basil is a mild analgesic.

    Alcohol tinctures, infusions and herbal teas, for example, with lavender or lemon balm, with coriander, are prepared from ordinary basil.

    As a treatment course to strengthen the nervous system and to relieve stress, they drink basil tea for one week, take a two-week break and repeat the course. One teaspoon of dry grass is poured with a glass of boiling water, covered, insisted for 10 minutes and filtered. Drink warm before going to bed.

    Common wormwood: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other name wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris) — Chernobyl.

    Common wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris).

    Perennial, rhizome, herbaceous plant up to 200 cm high. The stem is erect, branched, ribbed, red-brown in color. The leaf blade below is slightly pubescent and has a grayish tint, its upper part is smooth, slightly glossy and very dark green.

    Inflorescences - baskets of small nondescript flowers - are collected in large and dense panicles. Flowering begins in July. Each plant produces several million seeds.

    The root system is branching, very strong, represented by a thick many-headed rhizome with accessory roots.

    In the garden, this type of wormwood is rarely planted specially. It is more common as a weed plant.

    The use of the medicinal properties of common wormwood

    For medicinal purposes, both fresh and dry grass are used (flowers and leaves are collected from the moment of flowering), as well as roots - they are dug up in late autumn.

    From wormwood ordinary alcohol tinctures, decoctions and infusions are prepared. They are used occasionally or in courses of two weeks, between which a mandatory pause of three weeks is made.

    Preparations from common wormwood have a calming, anticonvulsant and weak hypnotic effect. They are used for neurasthenia, headache.

    To improve sleep and muscle relaxation, a decoction for a herbal bath is prepared from ordinary wormwood and peppermint (2 tablespoons each) and linden blossom (5 tablespoons), pouring a liter of boiling water and kept in a water bath for 30 minutes.

    Medicinal meadowsweet: photo, description, methods of plant propagation

    Other name meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) – meadowsweet.

    Stuffed meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria).

    Description of the plant. Perennial, stable, rhizome plant with a height of 60 to 170 cm. The stalk is hard, ribbed. The leaves are dark green, hard, alternate. The veins are deeply depressed, which is why the leaf blade has a slightly embossed surface. Its lower part is whitish, as it has a slight pubescence.

    Small light creamy fragrant flowers are collected in a dense, repeatedly branching inflorescence. Blooms in the fifth year. Long flowering, begins in mid-June.

    The root system is shallow and is represented by a branched rhizome with a small number of subordinate roots.

    It is found in nature along moist lowlands, along the edges of deciduous forests, along the banks of lakes, rivers, among bushes. In gardens, they grow on moisture-intensive loamy soils in the "lace" shade of trees. But with a lack of sun, meadowsweet flowers lose their aroma. Meadowsweet is very suitable for container growing. In autumn, the plant is cut at the soil level.

    Reproduction Methods: division of rhizomes, sowing seeds (germinate within 2 to 3 months).

    For medicinal purposes use leaves and flowers of meadowsweet.

    The use of medicinal properties of meadowsweet

    For medicinal purposes, leaves and flowers are used, their collection begins after the opening of the first flowers. Use in fresh and dried form as a sedative, in stressful situations, headaches and with sleep problems. In its sedative effect, the meadowsweet exceeds the valerian.

    Herbal tea is prepared from meadowsweet flowers, which has an analgesic and calming effect. To brew tea, take 2 teaspoons in a glass of boiling water, insist for five minutes and filter.

    Periwinkle small: photo, description, plant propagation methods

    Other name periwinkle small (Vinca minor L.) – small vinka.

    Periwinkle small (Vinca minor L).

    Evergreen, creeping semi-shrub plant 10-15 cm high. Creeping stems, stiff, rooting, up to one meter long. The lower part of the stem is lignified. The leaf blade is solid, leathery, bright green, shiny.

    Blue-blue flowers in their shape resemble Phlox flowers. Single. Flowering shoots (20 cm) after flowering lie down. Flowering begins in May and lasts about a month.

    The root system is represented by a horizontal strong rhizome with a large number of cord-like accessory roots.

    It is found in nature in deciduous forests. In the garden grows well on slightly acidic, light and not waterlogged loamy soils in sunny or slightly shaded places. Periwinkles grow in complete shade, but in this case they no longer have medicinal properties.

    Reproduction Methods: cuttings, division of the bush.

    Only periwinkles that grow in the sun have healing properties.

    The use of the healing properties of periwinkle

    Periwinkle preparations have a calming, hypotensive, and vasodilating properties. They are used for neurosis, depression, neurotic conditions.

    From the periwinkle, a decoction is prepared.One tablespoon of chopped leaves is poured with a glass of cold boiled water, heated in a water bath for 15 minutes, insisted under the lid for another quarter hour, kept warm, must be filtered. Take during the day three times a third of a glass.

    Stolistnaya rosa and damask rose: photo, description, methods of plant propagation

    Other names roses metropolitan (Rosa centifolia) – Moroccan rose, May rose, centifolia rose, rose of provence. Other names damask roses (Rosa damascene) – Turkish rose, Bulgarian rose.

    The petals of these types of roses are used for medical purposes.

    Rosa centifolia (Rosa centifolia).

    Description. Rose stolistnaya - deciduous, upright, winter-hardy and drought-resistant shrubs up to 150-200 cm tall. The branches are densely covered with sickle-curved thorns, peduncles have needle-like thorns. The upper part of the leaf blade is bare, dark green, the lower part is dull green, pubescent. The flowers are large, rounded, densely doubled, drooping, very fragrant. Flowering usually begins in late June. No fruits are formed.

    Damask rose grows to 1.5 meters in height. It has thorns of various shapes and large leaves - up to 15 cm, panicled multi-flowered or semi-umbrella inflorescences. In place of large flowers (6-7 cm), fruits are formed.

    Both the damask rose and the metropolitan rose are hybrid forms that are derived from the wild-growing species - Gallica roses. It has been grown in France since the 16th century, where for its medicinal properties the plant received a second name - a pharmacy rose. Today in Russia, you can buy about 40 varieties of hybrids of Gallik rose.

    Reproduction Methods: cuttings, dividing the bush, overgrown.

    Damask rose (Rosa damascene).

    Using the healing properties of rose petals

    It is advised to collect rose petals in the morning, when they are still a little wet and immediately use. For drying, the petals are laid out in a single layer on a cotton cloth.

    Use petals for the preparation of tinctures, aromatic oils, vinegars, infusions, herbal teas, for example, with lavender, chamomile, clary sage, Moroccan mint.

    Preparations from rose petals help to get out of a stressful state, calmly respond to troubles. Since ancient times, medicine from rose petals has been used in medicine to treat nervous, mental and heart diseases.

    Tea made from rose petals has a calming effect and improves heart function. One teaspoon of the petals is poured with a glass of boiling water, tightly covered, insisted for 5 minutes. Drink two glasses a day.

    Jam from petals or petals sprinkled with sugar are a good remedy for insomnia.

    Passiflora incarnate: photo, description, methods of plant propagation

    Other name passiflora incarnate (Passiflora incarnata) – meat passion red.

    Passiflora incarnata (Passiflora incarnata).

    Description of the plant. Perennial herbaceous thermophilic evergreen liana, up to 6 m high. The aerial part of the plant can die in the fall, and in spring, rhizomes resume from sleeping buds. It grows well in the southern regions in open ground, can tolerate short-term frosts up to -15 ° С. In colder regions, passionflower is grown in a greenhouse or as a greenhouse. You can also bring plants to the cellar for wintering.

    The stems are bare, lignified, requiring reliable support. Petiolate leaves, dense, almost leathery, dark green (the lower part of the leaf plate is grayish). Antennae powerful, rigid, located in the axils of the leaves.

    The flowers are single, large, sometimes fragrant. Flowering from the first year, it is plentiful and long. Flower buds are laid on the shoots of the current year. The root system is powerful and deep.

    Passiflora incarnate is an unpretentious vine. It grows rapidly in sunny, windless areas on nutritious, loose, slightly acidic, moist soils. In indoor conditions, this passionflower requires increased attention to itself.

    Reproduction Methods: cuttings, sowing seeds, root offspring.

    Passiflora incarnate is an unpretentious vine.

    Using the medicinal properties of passiflora incarnate

    Passiflora incarnate is a valuable medicinal plant. Experts believe that for medicinal purposes you can use only this species, but not blue passiflora or tetrahedral passiflora, which are grown as ornamental plants or for the purpose of collecting fruits.

    Dry herbs (leaves, young stems, antennae, buds, flowers, unripe fruits (up to 5 mm) are used for medicinal purposes. Alcohol tinctures, infusions and herbal teas, for example, with peppermint or leaves of wild strawberry, are prepared from them.

    To prepare the tincture, 200 g of dry grass is poured into a glass opaque dish, poured with one liter of alcohol (60%) and insisted for two weeks with occasional shaking. Take three drops a day, 30 drops.

    In case of sleep disturbance, an herb collection is prepared: 20 g of passionflower herb, 20 g of hop cones, 15 g of lemon balm leaves, 15 g of orange flowers. One teaspoon of the mixture is poured with a glass of boiling water, covered, insisted for five minutes, filtered. Drink warm before going to bed.

    Reference tables of medicinal plants, grouped by therapeutic effect. List of beneficial herbs.

    Medicinal plants are usually distinguished by the effect on the human body. The healing effect is brought not by the herbs themselves, but by drugs based on them. In the manufacture of drugs from plants, useful substances are extracted that treat or facilitate the course of the disease.

    In the herbalist, the plants are grouped according to the therapeutic effect on the body, in order to read the prescriptions of the drugs and the methods of their use, follow the link (if available) by clicking on the name of the medicinal herb.

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