About animals

Dog constitution



As a result of the continuous influence of the environment, all animals change and adapt to it. In a number of generations, such changes, accumulating, become hereditary and give these animals advantages over others that have not changed and have not adapted. Animals possessing such advantages, developing favorably, leave viable offspring, while others that do not have beneficial changes die without leaving offspring.

With this selection of changes that are useful for the body, the expediency that we observe in living nature has been created and is being created. Such expediency is manifested in the structure of organisms and their adaptability to different conditions of existence, and this favors their survival and reproduction.

If this process occurs in vivo, without human intervention, then it is called natural selection. Natural selection was discovered and studied by C. Darwin and received further creative development in the piles of Russian and Soviet scientists.

For millennia, natural selection, preserving and accumulating useful properties in each generation of animals, has changed the animal world and contributed to the expediency in the development of modern animal organisms.

When breeding animals at home, a person significantly weakens, and in some cases completely eliminates the influence of natural selection. Therefore, if among wild animals only those survive that can provide themselves with food, are able to tolerate adverse climatic influences, are resistant to diseases and have a protective coloration, then among domestic animals provided with abundant food, warm rooms, and treatment for diseases, they can survive and breed even the weakest individuals.

However, one should never forget about the relationship between natural and artificial selection, especially in the breeding of service dogs, which has exclusively utilitarian significance.

“The closer the conditions of keeping animals to natural conditions, the stronger the factors of natural selection, the stronger the breed should be in its constitutional features and physique” (Academician V.M. Yudin, Principles and methods for improving breeds of farm animals. Report at the 37th Plenum of the Supreme Agricultural Academy, 1953 ).

Man for many generations selects animals that have changes that are useful to him for breeding. Accumulating, these changes become hereditary, as a result of which different breeds of animals are created.

The action of selection cannot be imagined as a smooth evolutionary process: the accumulation of changes that have begun and their intensification in generations. The creative role of selection is that quantitative changes in properties and attributes lead to qualitative changes. Thus, under the influence of selection, as a result of strengthening certain properties, new, different types of dogs are created.

Such selection results can be achieved either in a relatively short time or, conversely, require many years of work. Success will depend not only on the ability to find and select subtle differences between animals, but also on the ability to create the necessary conditions in order to cause and consolidate the desired changes. As an example, we can cite a number of specialized dog breeds bred by humans using artificial selection.

Dachshund, adapted for a specific purpose - hunting in holes, has a long body and very short limbs, and a greyhound has an exceptionally perfect type of exterior, adapted for fast running. The nervous system, sensory organs of dachshunds and greyhounds are also adapted to train them for highly specialized hunting. This selection made by man is called artificial selection.

Initially, at different stages of human culture, selection was carried out unconsciously and haphazardly and only gradually turned into conscious and methodological. It is difficult to establish the border where the unconscious ends and conscious selection begins. In ancient times, people knew the rules for selecting animals intended for breeding purposes. Gradually, with the growth of human culture, the selection technique also improves: the animals selected are tested comprehensively - their productivity, constitution, and exterior are evaluated, the quality of the offspring and the characteristics of parents and other ancestors are taken into account, and special conditions favorable for the development of desired qualities in the offspring are created.

Soviet creative Darwinism is developing methods for the rapid and directed change of nature, animals, improvement of old and creation of new breeds in accordance with the needs of the socialist economy of our country.

When breeding, a person in each subsequent generation seeks to obtain animals with the best qualities, for which he selects the best, breeding from the entire breed and intends them for further breeding, but does not satisfy his requirements, uses only as productive animals.

Thus, the breeding dogs of each subsequent generation are the descendants of only a certain, specially selected livestock.

The selection should be comprehensive and contain the full range of requirements that are presented to the breeding animal.

Since at the highest stages of their development breeding is not limited to breeding only animals selected for this purpose, in addition to mass selection, breeding is introduced, that is, pairs of animals are individually selected for mating.

Selection and selection should be carried out on the basis of the same signs and indicators, since both of them are closely related and are complementary tribal events.

A comprehensive study of the breed, the main lines and the heredity of individual producers allows us to significantly predict the results of individual mating techniques and thereby correct and direct the breed in the desired direction.

Thus, by selection in dog breeding should be understood a system of organized mating, which is used to produce offspring of the desired quality.

There are two types of matching.

Uniform selection - when they mate the best, of the same type, with similar qualities of a male and a female, in order to consolidate and develop their positive qualities in the offspring. The widespread practice of breeding all types of animals has shown that uniform selection not only contributes to the accumulation of desirable hereditary traits that are already found in the selected pairs, but also leads to the improvement of new forms in the same direction in the offspring bred in good conditions.

“Experienced breeders consider the mating of similar or similar individuals as the main reason forcing the offspring of these animals to vary even more significantly in the same direction as they themselves” (Professor P.N. Kuleshov, Theoretical work on livestock breeding, Selkhozgiz, 1947 ).

Homogeneous selection is used in purebred breeding both in kinship and unrelated mating of dogs, as well as in crossbreeding and when breeding crossbreeds “in themselves”.

Uniform selection is practically carried out by DOSAAF clubs when fulfilling the knitting plan with breeding producers.

Heterogeneous selection aims to combine the heredity of dogs of one or different breeds, not similar to each other in a number of ways.

Heterogeneous selection it is practically carried out when performing the so-called user-friendly knitting plan, where pure-bred but non-pedigree females are knitted with good males, thereby achieving not only an increase in stock, but also an improvement in the breed. As a rule, mating of distant dogs that are unrelated and dissimilar in quality is usually accompanied by a strengthening of the constitution in the offspring, an increase in vitality and other phenomena of heterosis.

Thus, heterogeneous selection enriches the breed with great hereditary capabilities, increases the vitality and efficiency of the offspring.

A significant number of descendants of dogs obtained from non-tribal females by heterogeneous selection in the second and third generations, with further proper selection and good breeding, can become a pedigree one.

There are cases when, in the first generation, they received valuable individuals from bitches of little value in quality, mated with a good dog. An example is the East European Shepherd - the winner of the All-Union Exhibition of 1940 and the winner of the Moscow exhibitions of 1945 and 1946. Karo (Selezneva), born of a pedigree dog of the Mist VRKSS 3136 (nursery of the Central Dog Osoaviahima) and a middle-sized female Jerry (Abakumova). The same type of heterogeneous selection should include a mating of East European shepherds - the male dog champion Abrek VRKSS I with a small and poor bitch Jerry VRKSS 39 (Pekhtereva). A number of excellent dogs were received from this pair: Arno VRKSS 3656 (Mishchenko), Typhoon VRKSS 3167 (Manyakina), Irma VRKSS 409 (Naryshkina), in the future - good producers.

When working with a breed, it is necessary to use both methods: uniform selection - to fix specific useful features of lines and families and heterogeneous - to change directions in linear breeding, create new lines, increase the vitality and performance of animals.

The selection should be comprehensive. Selection only for certain characteristics - one-sided - cannot contribute to the improvement of the breed. For example, selection only by official qualities, without taking into account the features of the constitution and the exterior, as a rule, leads the breed to weakening and degeneration. The second extreme is also wrong - selection on the exterior, without taking into account the dog’s professional qualities, which is extremely harmful, as it makes the breed unproductive and, therefore, of little value.

When drawing up a mating plan, breeding sections and individual breeders often subordinate the selection to particular tasks - to correct individual exterior flaws, which leads to the pursuit of individual dog stats (head, ears, etc.), and completely ignore other, more important, economically useful signs and properties of the animal.

The purpose of the selection should not be the correction of individual shortcomings, but the desire to develop and consolidate all the main advantages for using the breed.

Therefore, when choosing producers, it is necessary to strive to ensure that, in their type and basic qualities, they correspond to the direction that was adopted when breeding this breed, taking into account its use.

Selecting pairs individually, you should make sure that the most important properties of bitches are enhanced and complemented by the advantages of male dogs. The presence of identical flaws in pairs is not allowed. You should never compensate for the shortcomings of one manufacturer with the opposite shortcomings of another, for example, a female with direct back, knit with a male with saber-hind limbs, compensate for a sagging back with a humpback, etc. You should try to compensate for the shortcomings of one side with the advantages of the other.

It must be taken as a rule that the selected producers should not only be better than bitches, but also “mix” well with their properties and have the ability to pass on their qualities to offspring, that is, have the so-called conservative heredity, depending on the origin, upbringing conditions as the producer itself , and his closest ancestors, as well as the age and condition of the dog at the time of mating.

Of great importance in the selection is the age of the manufacturers. As a rule, animals between the ages of about 3 to 6–7 years have the greatest hereditary power.

With increasing age, with the physiological aging of the body and the appearance of decrepitude, the ability to transfer its properties to offspring may decrease. Practically, males are used with good preservation and strength up to 10 years, bitches - up to 8–9 years. The above sometimes diverges from practical observations, as many manufacturers gave the best offspring precisely in old age. This, for example, should include Edy (nursery of the border troops), Hertha (nursery of the NKHS of the USSR), Deveta (nursery of the NKZ USSR), Zelt (Bazunova) and others. These particular cases confirm the general position that producers need to be studied in the process of their breeding . Therefore, old producers are easier to identify, and they become better known for the quality of their offspring and for the individual characteristics that they inherit. Based on experience with such manufacturers it is easier to pick up a pair. It goes without saying that if it were possible to successfully pair these manufacturers at a younger age, the offspring could be even better.

With individual breeding selection, it is necessary to anticipate the results obtained, which should be based on knowledge of the breed, the individual qualities of the producers, their ancestors, the study of the offspring received from them, as well as the conditions for raising and raising young animals.

Dogs that have reached puberty and physical maturity are allowed to mate. Puberty is the age when the sex glands reach their final development and the animal is able to reproduce.

The timing of puberty depends on various reasons. Small breeds, as well as dogs of a delicate constitution type, mature earlier, large and moist dogs - later. To this we must add various individual characteristics of the body, environmental conditions and, above all, feeding conditions.

Bitches reach puberty before males. Usually, in dogs of service breeds, puberty occurs at the age of: in females of eight to ten months, in males of eleven to sixteen months.

However, dogs cannot be bred at such a young age, because, despite the onset of puberty, the body of the young dog has not yet reached its full physical maturity, and therefore the mating and the state of the bitch's puppy will delay its further development. Bitches remain small, underdeveloped and give weak and small puppies.

Males, which are used for mating at an early age, are poor-bones, since the increased secretory activity of the sex glands delays the general development of the skeleton. Therefore, dogs that have reached not only sexual, but also physical maturity should be allowed to mate.

Under normal conditions, in dogs of service breeds physical maturity occurs: in a female at eighteen to twenty months, in a male at two or two and a half years.


Selection by performance is an essential element in breeding service dogs.

The breeding of service dogs necessary for the socialist economy and defense of our Motherland cannot be carried out without taking into account the suitability of these dogs for a particular service.

The creation of all breeds of farm animals always began with a selection by productivity, as a result of which, in a number of generations, a certain constitutional type of animal with its characteristic exterior was formed.

“A function gives rise to a form by developing the corresponding organs. Weakening of the function causes weakening of the organs ”(Lamarck, Philosophy of Zoology, p. 176).

Improving the breeds of service dogs should go first and foremost along the path of improving the nervous system. The faster and more perfect the dog reacts to external stimuli, the sooner it will adapt and succumb to new, increasingly complicated training requirements.Unconditioned hereditary reflexes of the body are supplemented by new conditioned reflexes that turn into more complex skills that allow the body to present higher requirements.

Training helps not only to identify, but also to develop and improve the quality of workability in the breed.

In addition, the improvement of the nervous system creates, first of all, the makings of good trainability, at the same time those processes that are as if in antagonism with these abilities are weakened: lethargy and the associated tendency to obesity, early senility, weakening of sexual activity, excessive excitability, i.e. all the features of adverse metabolism.

Academician I.P. Pavlov in his works proved the possibility of the transition of conditioned reflexes to unconditioned, that is, the inheritance of acquired characteristics while maintaining the same conditions of existence in a number of generations.

“It can be understood that some of the conditioned, newly formed reflexes later by heredity turn into unconditioned” (Academician I.P. Pavlov, Op., Vol. 3, p. 217).

The inheritance of “artificially modified instincts” was pointed out by Professor E.A. Bogdanov. He said that very many dog ​​breeds from a young age, without any influence on the part of the person, show the inclinations or skills that were artificially grafted to their ancestors by humans using training, for example, cop dogs do a stand in front of a bird, shepherds drive and guard sheep, etc. "All this can be explained without exaggeration only by inheriting the acquired qualities of the nervous system" (Professor E.A. Bogdanov, Fundamentals of Selection, p. 70).

Features of the transfer of acquired characters by dogs to their offspring were also noticed by dog ​​breeding practices.

“It’s easier for angry and poisoned dogs to have daredevils like them than for sluggish and unharmed dogs” (N. Reutt, Dog Hunt, 1846, p. 57, St. Petersburg).

An outstanding Russian biologist of the 40s of the XIX century, a spokesman for evolutionary views in the pre-Darwinian era, K.F. The helm writes: “It has been noticed by everyone that those dogs that are already born trained” are especially capable of training ”(Professor K.F. Steering wheel, t. 1, p. 130) (i.e., from parents trained in a number of generations - A. M.).

When selecting, one should distinguish between two adjacent, but different from each other, concepts: “training” and “training”.

Training, i.e., the degree of training is made up depending on the quality of the dog, the time spent on training, the qualifications and skills of the trainer.

Trainability, i.e., the dog’s ability to train, the quick training of conditioned reflexes, skills, and well-developed instincts.

The ability to train is especially valuable in breeding use.

During the selection, all the qualities and characteristics of the dog should be revealed, which almost completely allows us to do comprehensive and versatile tests according to the DOSAAF program, which pass the pedigree dogs (Rules and regulations for testing dogs, DOSAAF Publishing House).

The assessment is made on the basis of scores for individual techniques and diplomas received, with the obligatory consideration of the objective conditions in which the dog was trained.


The selection according to the constitution and the exterior is based on a materialistic idea of ​​the relationship of form and function, the external structure of the animal (exterior) with its internal properties (interior) and performance.

“All organic nature is one solid proof of the identity or continuity of form and content. Morphological and physiological phenomena, form and function determine one another mutually. Differentiation of the form (cell) determines the differentiation of the substance in the muscle, skin, bone, epithelium, etc., and differentiation of the substance determines, in turn, the differentiation of the form ”(F. Engels, Dialectics of Nature, Sixth Edition, 1934, pp. 20–21).

The selection of animals on the exterior, taking into account constitutional features, obviously arose at the very beginning of the taming of animals by humans.

In dog breeding, selection according to the constitution and exterior is especially developed, since a significant number of dogs that are kept by amateurs do not undergo training, and in many cases keeping dogs has no economic or practical value. Some breeds of dogs are bred exclusively for decorative purposes. In this regard, productivity is not found in all dogs. Nevertheless, judging the dog by the exterior, we judge the strength of its physique and fitness to the conditions in which it exists and is used. This selection method has been widely used in dog breeding for the last 70–80 years, that is, since the organization of dog shows, which greatly contributed to the culture and development of pedigree dog breeding.

Currently, in the Soviet Union, exterior selection (examination of dogs at shows) is carried out not on the basis of secondary and unimportant signs to resolve the sports interest of the owners, but on the anatomical and physiological indicators that underlie economically useful signs and properties that indicate breeding virtues dogs.

The science of the exterior met a number of idealistic directions on the way of its development, trying to find "ideal forms of the animal" and put them in some specific patterns.

Russian scientists, who hold materialistic positions, have developed their doctrine of the exterior based on practical and scientific experience. They considered the animal’s body as a single whole, and its individual parts (articles) were evaluated in relation to each other and to the whole organism.

Professors P.N. Kuleshov, M.I. Pridorogin, E.A. Bogdanov, Academicians M.F. Ivanov and E.F. Liskun, as well as other scientists, while studying and developing the doctrine of the exterior, aimed to establish the relationship of the physique of the animal with its health, environment, living conditions and the suitability of the animal to perform certain work. On the basis of these provisions, a doctrine of the constitution arose in zootechnics, expanding and physiologically confirming the main provisions of the doctrine of the exterior of farm animals. Methods have been developed for the comprehensive study and examination of the constitution and exterior of animals.

The idealistic false doctrine of Weyuman-Mendel-Morgan, widely spread today in animal husbandry in Europe and America, denies the role and importance of the constitution and exterior and considers the body as the shell of "... an immortal hereditary substance independent of the qualitative features of the development of a living body that controls the mortal body, but not generated by it" (Academician T.D. Lysenko, Report on the Situation in Biological Science, Verbatim Report, 1948, p. 12).

Russian scientists, classics of zootechnical science, sharply opposed these incorrect statements, proving their depravity by examples from their practical work.

“A modern livestock practitioner and a trained livestock specialist should be thoroughly familiar not only with the exterior of domestic animals, but also should clearly understand the standard forms of breeds they breed” (P.N. Kuleshov, Exterior Selection of Horses, Livestock, Sheep and Pigs, Third Edition, Moscow, 1934, p. 8).

“However,” writes Professor P.N. Kuleshov, - despite the great practical importance of the exterior assessment and the obvious connection between the body shape and its physiological functions, conflicting views on the importance of the exterior for the evaluation of domestic animals have recently been voiced, similar to the situation in the past century, when some authors the connection between the morphological structure and physiological functions was denied ”(Ibid., Pp. 9–10).

In his report at the second session of the Supreme Agricultural Academy, academician M.F. Ivanov said:

“... how can an animal with a poor constitution and exterior be taken into improvers? I attach great importance to the constitution of the animal in my work, yet I have not heard the word “constitution” from any geneticist, as if animals had no constitution ”(Academician A.K. Crest. Academician M.F. Ivanov and his work on breeding new breeds of animals. Uchpedgiz, 1949, p. 80).

The selection according to the constitution and exterior in official dog breeding is carried out at adult dog shows and broods of young animals and is called an examination.

The task of examination at broods and exhibitions includes:

1) Evaluate all dogs represented by constitution, exterior, temperament and character.

2) To identify the best producers and study features such as their constitution and exterior in the offspring.

3) Define lines, families and their specific features in the breed.

4) To note the work of breeders, livestock specialists and dog owners, improving and improving the breed, in order to study and popularize their experience in selecting, feeding, raising and raising dogs.

5) To examine and evaluate young animals under 10 months of age at the time of the examination.

The examination consists of:

1) Inspection of dogs, their ratings and descriptions for age and specialized classes.

2) The arrangement of dogs, depending on their quality, which is of great sports interest to dog owners, stimulates and improves the entire system of breeding.

3) Definitions on the broods of young animals according to the growth and development of the puppy's age and the quality of his upbringing and rearing.

5) Instructions to the owners on how to correct defects and directionally raise and educate dogs.

Exterior Assessment Methods

The main method for studying and evaluating the exterior in animal husbandry is the eye assessment, which is carried out using free assessment and scaling of individual articles.

The glomerular assessment, i.e., assessment by examining and describing addition, is the most common in livestock, and the only accepted in dog breeding.

The practical application of the theoretical knowledge of the exterior is a rather difficult matter, requiring constant practice in order to accurately and quickly understand the advantages and disadvantages of an animal.

However, for the expert, only theoretical training is not enough. Along with knowledge of the theory, constant practice is needed, developing an eye, knowledge of the features of the breed and the desired type.

It is necessary to clearly imagine the best forms, types found in a given breed, to study them in places of main distribution, and not only in centers where already selected individuals flock, sometimes giving an incorrect picture of the breed as a whole.

It is necessary to know the best lines, families and individual outstanding animals in order to conduct the examination, direct the breed along the path of its improvement, and not to fix and select lagging types and lines.

Only if all the above conditions are met, it is possible to correctly and purposefully conduct an examination, to accurately determine the condition of the rock and the direction of the factory work.

Without knowledge of the characteristics of the breed, its condition and breed formation, the expert will not be able to correctly identify the main core of animals and discard anything unsuitable for breeding, which does not contribute to further improvement.

When selecting for the exterior, one must observe and examine the temperament, character, reactions of the dog to the environment, degree of mobility, relationship with the owner, discipline, etc. Based on these observations, an experienced specialist can identify animals that are desirable or undesirable for training.

Examination at exhibitions and broods is carried out in a specially designated place, in the ring.

The ring is a flat platform, covered on all sides by a rope. It should be well lit and have a shadow side (an examination in artificial or bad light is not carried out).

The soil in the ring must be firm, without grass or with short grass that does not cover the dog's paws. It is best to use ready-made volleyball, basketball courts, alleys for this purpose.

If there are no sites with even and hard ground, several panels are made 150-180 cm long and 60 cm wide. The panels should be smooth, well planed, 10-15 cm high and should not bend under the weight of the dog.

The size of the ring may vary depending on the number of dogs. Preferred, of course, are large rings that allow you to freely position the dogs, isolate one from the other, keep them on a longer leash and inspect, avoiding from all sides, in place and in motion.

The minimum ring size is dictated by the following requirements. Both during movement and in place, the distance between the dogs should be at least 1.5 m. From the center of the ring to walking or standing dogs in all directions there should be at least 8-10 m, since otherwise it is difficult to have an idea of ​​the proportions and inspect the dog from all sides when withdrawing it to the center of the ring.

In the center of the ring they put a table for an expert commission. To facilitate work in sunny hot weather and to protect against rain, a canopy is made over the table.

The methods of examination of dogs are different, strictly individual and depend on the conditions of the ring, the time allotted for this work, and the number of dogs. In that case, if it is necessary not only to evaluate, but also to arrange the dogs depending on the quality of their exterior, they usually use the so-called comparative method.

When examining moving dogs, the best of them is distinguished (at first glance), it is detained, and it remains at the head of the ring. Subsequently, the best dogs that are most suitable for the previously chosen one are selected from the circle and put in front or behind it. Thus, gradually changing places, they place all the dogs. Dogs arranged in a certain sequence can be easily compared with each other, which facilitates a detailed, updated assessment.

The final inspection and description of dogs is more convenient to start from the end. The last, worst dog is compared to the one standing next to it. After the expert is convinced that she is put in her place, she is described and released.

Assessing the best dogs is much more difficult. Greater accuracy is required, especially if this occurs in an exhibition environment where the definition of classrooms is of great sporting importance.

Therefore, the remaining small best group of dogs is usually examined again on the spot and in motion, forcing them to move with different gaits, clarify all the details and features of the constitutional type and constitution.

The group method of examination is used in cases where the ring is small and small, which makes it impossible to operate simultaneously with all dogs. The group method is as comparative as the first one, and differs only in that with this method the experts do not work with all dogs, but with separate groups.

All dogs moving in a circle are divided into groups by quality. First of all, weak, little-typed animals are selected whose negative properties are not in doubt. Selected dogs are placed by the above comparative method, described and released.

It is recommended that the best dogs from this group be held up for comparison with the second group, selected in the same order. By doing so, a consistent arrangement of the entire group of dogs is obtained.

With both methods, the teeth are examined after all the dogs are placed on the exterior, immediately rearranging the animals with the wrong bite.

Dogs are examined both locally, in a calm state, and in motion. The main one is the assessment in motion.

During the movement, the dog behaves most naturally and freely, while in place it sometimes stands incorrectly and thereby distorts its actual forms.Only in movement can one examine the correct construction and angles of the limbs, the strength and elasticity of the back, the softness of movements, the manner of holding the head, neck, and tail.

During movement, the dog should be inspected from the front, side and back to determine the correct positioning of the limbs, extension of the angles and direction of the joints.

The dog standing motionless on the side should be examined in a tense and alert posture. In an incorrectly placed dog, the actual forms are distorted. For example, if the backside of a dog placed on an uneven ground is slightly higher than the front, the exterior will completely change. Her center of gravity will move forward, the angles of the hind limbs will straighten, the forelimbs, on the contrary, will be bent at the shoulder-shoulder joints, and the metacarpus will bend. The opposite picture will turn out if you put the dog so that her backside is lower than the front.

In this case, the duty of the expert is not to fix the accidental and incorrect position, but to point it to the owner of the dog and oblige him to put it right.

The dog should be examined at a distance of about three meters, otherwise the angle of view will be very large, and the expert will not be able to catch the proportions and relationships of the individual parts of the body and lines of the dog.

A dog viewed from close range will always appear short-legged, squat. Headlines will not be visible.

The most difficult moment of the examination is the assessment of the dog.

The dog’s assessment cannot be constant and constant and changes under the influence of a number of reasons: age, condition, health status, excitement in the ring or, conversely, some timidity in an unfamiliar environment, finally, the host’s inability to show the dog correctly, etc.

During the examination, the dog should be evaluated according to the characteristics that are most closely related to its constitution and pedigree features, without stopping attention to small, irrelevant signs.

It is necessary to note the positive features of the dog, which are of interest for further breeding and improvement of the breed, not limited to indicating deviations from the norm, sometimes not even of practical importance.

Unfortunately, this “penalty” assessment method, when the expert focuses only on individual shortcomings, is still practiced in official dog breeding.

When evaluating a dog, the following symptoms are also taken into account:

typicality - compliance of the dog with the main type of breed and the absence of unusual signs and traits,

pedigree - the highest degree of severity of all the characteristics characteristic of the desired type of breed,

harmony, or proportionality, additions, expressed in a proportionate ratio of the individual parts to the total body weight.

Attention should also be paid to sexual dimorphism - the constitutional difference between males and females not only in the structure of the sexual apparatus, but also in a number of secondary sexual characteristics. Males are larger, more massive in composition, more courageous and vicious. Bitches are usually shorter, have a lighter skeleton, more affectionate and trusting.

All deviations from the norm of addition and the desired type of breed are divided, for convenience, into two groups:

limitations - in the event that they are not very noticeable, are weakly expressed and do not interfere with the dog’s breeding and use, for example, a small size, slightly closer hock joints, a soft back, etc.,

vicesif flaws of addition, as well as undesirable behaviors are pronounced and interfere with the dog’s breeding or use, for example, a sharp deviation from the type of constitution inherent to the breed, all malocclusions irrespective of the severity, bilateral nutraceae that do not give offspring, non-compliance with the sexual type ( male in the type of female or female in the type of male), pronounced shortcomings of individual articles, etc.

The constitution and exterior of service dogs at exhibitions and broods are regarded by the following estimates.

Excellent get dogs that have the best constitution for their breed, a strong and well-developed skeleton, strong and dry muscles, anatomically correct and proportional build and a good apparatus of movement. Breed and sexual characteristics should be pronounced. In the ring, the dog should not show a defensive reaction in a passive form. It is desirable to calm and disciplined behavior, subordinate counselor. Dogs that receive excellent marks (very good in the third grade) must be presented in accordance with the requirements of the standard (cropped ears, tail, etc.) and be in good condition.

These dogs are allowed only a few small flaws of addition (in the form of hints).

Rating very well get dogs that meet the same basic requirements of the breed, type and behavior, but having several disadvantages, as well as in the first case, not turning into a vice.

Rating well give dogs typical of the breed, but having a defect in its exterior or a number of minor flaws, as well as having no distinct pedigree and gender characteristics.

Rating satisfactorily can get a dog that is typical for the breed and suitable for work.

Cowardly dogs are left unrated. However, cowardice should not be confused with the timidity inherent in all young dogs - “a reflex of primary natural caution,” as academician I.P. called it Pavlov. This shyness appears in many, especially young dogs, who first came to an unfamiliar and difficult exhibition environment, with a large number of people, dogs, the presence of an orchestra, etc.

The examination report should contain a description of the general condition of the breed in the area of ​​the organization that hosted the exhibition, indicating the main lines of the families and individual outstanding animals, as well as the general breed level of the dogs presented at the exhibition and the further direction of pedigree work with the breed.

Dogs are described by class in the order of their places. The description of the dog should give a complete picture of its type and exterior, with a mark of its positive and negative characteristics.

The description is given in arbitrary form, using the special terminology adopted in the examination and the anatomical definitions of individual articles. Obsolete and arbitrary jargon should be avoided, making the report completely incomprehensible to the uninitiated.

When describing a dog, the following scheme should be used:

1. Typical for a given breed and gender.

2. Constitutional features.

4. The structure of the head with the mention of: a) the shape and structure of the frontal and zygomatic parts of the muzzle, b) the ratio of these parts to each other, c) the size, incision and color of the eyes, d) the shape and position of the ears.

5. The structure of the body: a) the length, degree of development, dryness and position of the neck, b) the structure of the withers, back, lumbar and croup, c) the shape and degree of development of the chest, d) the shape of the abdomen, groin, e) the shape of the tail.

6. The structure of the extremities: a) the shape of the shoulder-shoulder angle, the strength of the muscles and joints, the direction of the elbows, b) the length and shape of the forearm, wrists, metacarpals and paws, c) the state of the muscles and the shape of the hip and knee angles, e) the length and direction of the lower leg, dryness and angles of the hock, shape and direction of the metatarsus and paws.

7. The nature and quality of movements.

8. Wool: a) the shape of the coat and its condition, b) the presence of undercoat.

It is known that the development of the body is not uniform, but staged and each stage of development has its own characteristics. Therefore, when evaluating a dog by its exterior, one should always take into account the dog’s age, requirements and features of each stage of development.

When conducting an examination, dogs are divided into age groups:

a) from 10 months to 1 1/2 years (third grade, younger age),

b) from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 years (second grade, young dogs),

c) from 2 1/2 years and older (first grade, older).

When conducting an examination in each class, it is necessary to take into account the development requirements and the characteristics of this particular age group.

In the third grade (younger age) dogs are not yet formed. They have already reached puberty, but their physical development is not yet complete. Their exterior corresponds to this transitional period and is characterized by incomplete growth (especially the younger half of the class), the development of the skeleton, in particular the chest. Dogs seem tall and flat.

The muscles in this period are poorly developed, non-massive and non-muscularly acting. The head did not take its final shape (narrow, light), the neck seems long and thin, the croup is narrow.

Large raw type breeds often have weak ligaments and joints, the dog walks with an uncertain, "loose" gait. Some long-haired breeds do not have a fully developed coat and a steady color.

The highest rating in this transition class is considered “very good”.

In second grade ((young dogs) dogs mostly complete physical development. Growth ceases and bone development ends. Younger dogs of this class (18–20 months) are quite sharply different from older dogs that have reached the maximum age, have already been fully formed, and have already been used as producers. the bulk of the second class is characterized by “youthful” features: the lack of maturity, sufficient body width, massive, well-developed muscles, but at the same time more dry and strong build, developed surface cover and final color.

In first grade (older) dogs are characterized by complete development and the presence of better forms.

Old dogs, with the characteristic features of old age and decrepitude, expressed in general coarsening, weakening of the back, abdomen, weakness of the extremities, deterioration of the teeth, etc., should be reduced in assessment.


The origin of the dog is determined by the pedigree documents in which its ancestors are listed. Thus, the presence of a pedigree with registered ancestors guarantees its pure breed. To do this, all pedigree dogs must be recorded in pedigree books, and numbers are added to their nicknames, under which these dogs are listed in it.

Service dogs are recorded in the All-Union pedigree card index of service dogs (VRKSS), maintained by the Central Club of Service Dog Breeding of the USSR DOSAAF.

The puppy’s pedigree is made up of a combination of pedigree tables of its parents: the upper half of the table is the pedigree of the father, the lower half is the mother’s. Pedigrees are recorded on special forms, with a spread out table, where the ancestors of this dog are entered.

A puppy card is filled in for the puppy received from the planned mating - the primary document signed by the breeder (owner of the bitch from which the puppy was born) and certified by the club’s signature and seal.

A puppy card consists of a common part, located on the front page, which contains information about the puppy, a list of littermates, the surname and address of the breeder and owner. On the back of the pedigree table.

The parents of the puppy (the first generation of ancestors) are entered in the first columns, the grandfathers (second generation of ancestors), great-grandfathers (third generation of ancestors), etc.

Above, under the odd numbers, they always write the nickname of males, below under the even numbers - the nickname of bitches. In the event that the origin of the individual ancestors is unknown, it is necessary to indicate this in the columns of the father and mother of this dog.

The name of the dog and the symbols of the plant from which it comes, must be written in full, the symbols serve as an inseparable part of the name of the dog. After the nickname they put the abbreviated name of the pedigree book (VRKSS), in which the dog is recorded, and its number.

The surname or name of the organization - the owner of the dog - is placed in brackets.

The names of the dogs and the symbols of the factories should have semantic meaning and consist of Russian words or words of languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR. It is recommended to avoid complicated, incomprehensible and alien foreign nicknames, and also not to name dogs human names.

A puppy card is valid until the dog reaches 12 months of age, after which it must be exchanged for an extract from the All-Union pedigree card index of service dogs (VRKSS), which is conducted through the service dog club in which the dog is registered.

An extract from the WRCCC is compiled more fully than a puppy “card,” and contains information about the lines that form the basis for the breeding of this dog, its rating class, basic measurements, information about the dog’s participation in exhibitions, competitions and information on its pedigree use.

In dog breeding, especially when breeding factory breeds, genealogy was given a lot of attention, but without taking into account the conditions in which dogs were raised and raised, as well as the degree of their training.

On the basis of only the names of the ancestors and, at best, knowledge of their exterior evaluation at the exhibitions gave a conclusion about the value or low value of certain good dogs in terms of exterior and official qualities.

Such analyzes from the point of view of the modern Michurin understanding of selection are formal and harmful, since the selection work must be built on the basis of data from a comprehensive selection.

It should be emphasized that in working with local breeds the significance of selection by origin is still perfect (ignored, and pedigrees are usually absent.

Without knowledge of the breed and the study of methods for creating the best lines, families and individual outstanding producers, it is impossible to build breeding work.

The expression "Without knowledge of blood there is no tribal business" is the epigraph with which the famous Russian livestock specialist M.M. began and finished his work. Shchepkin, - remains correct to this day. But this wording should be exempted from (a formal understanding of the pedigree as a simple list (clichés of ancestors, regardless of their qualities, revealed hereditary features, conditions of detention, upbringing and training).

Knowing the property of dogs included in the pedigree, we can establish some assumptions about the quality of the offspring. The main importance should be given to the immediate ancestors, but this does not mean that knowledge of distant ancestors is not required. On the contrary, the fuller the pedigree, the more thoroughly it is necessary to study the hereditary features accumulating in generations and evaluate the pedigree from the point of view of the mating methods by which this dog was bred.

The dog’s pedigree is especially valuable, saturated with ancestors verified by posterity: the presence of outstanding animals among the ancestors, as well as successful selection combinations, increases the value of this dog.

Selection by origin should be closely linked to selection by quality of offspring.

Thus, a specialist who knows the breed can, on the basis of the pedigree, not only be convinced of the breed of the dog, but also determine its breeding value, and by selecting and appropriate environmental conditions, strengthen, suppress and modify the hereditary qualities of the dog.


Selection by the quality of the offspring serves as the best and true indicator of the breeding qualities of the animal, and the multiple birth and precocity of the dog make it especially valuable in dog breeding.

When assessing the producers, it is necessary to remember that the offspring received from them was formed under the influence of the hereditary qualities of both parents under certain external conditions of existence and largely depended on the conditions of their feeding, maintenance and care, as well as the rearing of young animals.

The offspring of even the best dogs with unsuccessful pairing or in the case of poor rearing and rearing of young animals, as a rule, is unsatisfactory. Therefore, attributing an improvement or deterioration in the quality of the offspring to one of the producers is formally and incorrectly.

Each producer can be an improver only under the condition of a successful combination of a couple and the right feeding conditions and the maintenance of not only both producers, but also the young animals obtained.

Estimation of the producer is established by the offspring of the first generation (according to sons and daughters), and the more reliable the estimate, the more numerous this offspring. For a complete assessment of the male, it is desirable to have a minimum number of puppies, approximately 12-15 (2-3 litters) from different females.

It is desirable for a female to have two litters from different males, but sometimes getting good offspring from one male puts her in the ranks of valuable producers. Puppies should be raised in similar conditions. Cases of poor rearing or puppy disease must be considered separately.

A preliminary assessment of the producers can be given in the same year after the puppies reach 5-6 months.

Evaluation of the transmitted type of constitution and features: the exterior is installed after the dog reaches the age of 10 months - according to the results of the examination in the younger class at the exhibition.

The final assessment of the quality of the producer for the offspring is given when scoring after passing the young training course, that is, after reaching about one and a half years.

Inspection of young animals should be carried out on broods of young animals organized by the club in the autumn of each year.

Puppies are initially examined by litters to evaluate their mothers, and then reduced to paternal groups.

When examining young animals by litters or paternal groups, attention should be paid to the general type, behavior, presence of deficiencies or defects of addition, the general development of the puppy and its compliance with the basic standards for a given age (weight, height, bony).

For each puppy, a card is entered in which its indicators, the noted features of the constitution, exterior and behavior, as well as the assessment of the entire litter and the degree of compatibility of the pair of producers are indicated, correcting all conclusions with comments on the conditions of growing.

The most valuable are the manufacturers who give puppies higher than the quality level of their mothers, and of the bitches - giving puppies are better than themselves. In both cases, the puppies should be desirable for the breed type, strong, tall and active.

The presence of homogeneous flaws, and even more so defects in litters from different bitches (for males) or from different males (for females) should be taken into account in the future and, if these flaws are significant, do not repeat such or similar combinations, prohibit kinship or reject the manufacturer .

When mating a producer with nonresident bitches or when selling puppies to other cities, it is necessary to put into practice clubs send puppy inspection cards to clubs where these manufacturers are used.

At exhibitions, manufacturers are evaluated in a special class. Evaluation for a male dog is carried out if there are at least five dogs of the first generation, for a female dog - no less than a sin, who received at this exhibition a rating of at least “very good” in any class.

A valuation is a comprehensive assessment of a dog, obtained on the basis of comprehensive selection materials. At present, appraisal has been introduced into the system of selection work in service dog breeding clubs. The deep breeding work previously carried out in clubs (for individual breeds) was not combined (which led to the separation of one breeding technique from another) and did not have a purposeful selection and selection in general, selection and selection went only according to one of the signs (most often by exterior), sometimes to the detriment of others, more important.

Under such a system, selection for service qualities suffered especially, which did not lead to the improvement of these qualities in the breed, but only to cull dogs that were obviously unfit for work (cowardly).

The introduction of integrated selection (appraisal) directs breeding work in service dog breeding clubs towards one goal - to establish an objective comprehensive assessment of the dog. This allows you to select a full-fledged animal in all respects as a producer. Only a comprehensive comprehensive assessment of biological and productive qualities ensures the correct selection of breeding animals and guarantees success in breeding.

A comprehensive selection of producers should be built on the basis of the following organically interconnected breeding measures:

3. Broods of young animals.

4. Processing information on the breeding activity of the dog by studying and evaluating the quality of the offspring.

5. Analysis and assessment of the origin of dogs. Dogs are awarded, received at exhibitions and broods not lower than the rating “good”.

All bonded dogs are divided by breed and sex into three age groups:

1 - the oldest, which includes dogs from 3 years old and older.

2 - medium - from 1/2 to 3 years.

3 - the youngest - from 10 months to 1 1/2 years.

Indicators of measurements and assessments of each dog to be booked are recorded in the scoring sheet (see page 133), in the columns of which are marked the points obtained by the dog when scoring.

The older group is credited for the whole range of indicators (performance, exterior and constitution, origin and quality of offspring), the middle group - for three indicators (performance, exterior and constitution, origin), the younger group - for two indicators (constitution and exterior and origin )

Evaluation of performance is taken according to the results shown by dogs in tests, and for the older age group requires a diploma in the special service, and for the middle - in general techniques.

For dogs of domestic breeds belonging to departmental kennels, collective farms or state farms, it is allowed to replace the diploma in tests with a certificate of their practical use.


Assessment of the constitution and the exterior is determined by diplomas obtained at exhibitions and broods.

A comprehensive assessment is carried out on a point system.

To assess the performance of dogs, the following were established: 1st degree diploma - 30 points, 2nd degree diploma - 25 points, 3rd degree diploma - 20 points.

Exterior and constitution: “excellent” - 30 points, “very good” - 25 points, “good” - 20 points.

The progeny score is determined on the basis of data on the offspring (children of the dog) over the age of 10 months who have passed the valuation and entered one of the valuation classes.

For each offspring who has received a grade not lower than the first class, the following is counted: male 2 points, female 4 points.

For each offspring who received a grade score of the second and third grade, it is counted: male 1 point, female 2 points.

Estimation of origin is determined on the basis of an extract from the All-Union pedigree card index of service dogs (VRKSS) or a puppy card (for dogs of a younger age group), as well as on the basis of diplomas received at exhibitions, broods and tests by the ancestors of the dog being honored.

The highest score by origin is 20, and for parents (the first row of ancestors), one point is counted for having one, and one point for evaluating their exterior at exhibitions or broods is not lower than “very good” and one point for having diplomas for trials, total for each of the parents is given 3 points, and for the first row of ancestors only 6 points.

For the second row of ancestors (grandfathers and grandmothers), 1 1/2 points for each are counted, of which 1 point for each of them and 1/2 point for having a rating of at least “very good”. In total, 6 points are counted for the second row of ancestors. For great-grandfathers (the third row of ancestors), 1/2 points are counted for the presence of each of them. In total, the third row of ancestors counts 4 points.

For great-great-grandfathers (the fourth row of ancestors), 1/4 point for each of them is counted. In total, 4 points are counted for the fourth row of ancestors.

Dogs of domestic breeds are evaluated slightly differently, only the first two rows of ancestors are taken into account, 2 points for parents for each, 2 points for evaluating their exterior at exhibitions or broods not lower than “very good” and 2 points for diplomas or “ certificates (for dogs belonging to state institutions or collective farms and state farms) about their use.

In total, 12 points are counted for the first row of ancestors.

For grandfathers (the second row of ancestors), 2 points for each are counted.

In total, the second row of ancestors counts 8 points.

In the event that one of the ancestors is unknown, then the second ancestor from this pair and his ancestors are not counted.

Classification of dogs is as follows.

Older age group

To the elite (upper class) include dogs that received at least 85 points in the presence of ratings not lower than: by official qualities - 25 points, by exterior and constitution - 25 points, by the quality of the offspring - 17 points (must have 8 males and 4 females descendants of the first class), by origin - 18 points.

To the first class include dogs that received at least 75 points, with ratings not lower than: by official qualities - 25 points, by exterior and constitution - 25 points, by offspring quality - 10 points, by origin - 15 points.

To the second class include dogs that received at least 70 points.

To third grade include dogs that received at least 60 points.

Middle age group

To the first class include dogs that have received at least 65 points, if there are at least grades: by official qualities - 25 points, by exterior and constitution - 25 points, by origin - 15 points.

To the second class include dogs that received at least 60 points, if there are ratings for the exterior and constitution of at least 20 points.

To the third grade include dogs that received at least 55 points.

Younger age group

To the first class include dogs that received at least 40 points, if there is an assessment of the exterior and constitution of at least 25 points.

To the second class include dogs that received at least 35 points.

For all dogs that have received a rating on scoring, fill out scoring sheets of the established form.

Dogs that have not fulfilled the conditions for scoring and have not scored the required number of points remain outside the class.

About loose or wet type

Such dogs have a massive, wide body, with short legs. The muscles will be loose, the muscles do not stand out in the body. Most often, the temperament of dogs is phlegmatic. If you walk a little pet, it will become obese. Such individuals ripen late.

Representatives have a wide head. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle looks sharp. The muzzle is often shortened and looks dull, has developed bryl. If you examine a lot of representatives, then there will be a snack.

Dogs' eyelids still look raw. The skin hangs freely in folds. On the neck of most representatives of the suspension. On the legs, straightened joints and while walking they look raw. What breeds belong to this type? Newfoundlands, with St. Bernards, others.

About the rough type

Most representatives of this type have a phlegmatic leading temperament.

They are more active, with better professional qualities when compared with loose ones. Pets are resilient and easily adapt to life in an apartment, a house, and in an aviary or a booth in the yard. In order to reproduce offspring, they mature later than other dogs.

Dogs are large, have a well-developed skeleton. Their skin is thick and tightly fits the body. There is no dampness in appearance. The head is large with well-developed cheekbones. The muzzle is blunt, but more elongated. The lips are dry and quite thick. Sagging a little. The eyelids look dry.

The dogs neck is thick, well muscled, but short. Broad, well-developed chest. Paws are not long. The angles in the knee and hock are straightened. In general, pets fit into a rectangular, squat format.

The remaining coat is coarse, with a thick undercoat. Bright representatives of this type: Central Asian with Caucasian Shepherd Dogs, Samoyeds with East Sled huskies and other breeds.

About strong type

These pets have a lively sanguine temperament. Dogs have a well-developed skeleton and dry muscles. The body looks massive and bumpy. Dogs form in the medium term. Ripening, ready to reproduce their own kind. Their head is wedge-shaped, elongated, of moderate width, and the muzzle is long.

The lips of dogs are most often dry, the eyes have a slightly oblique set. There are no wrinkles on the skin and it is of medium thickness. Tight fit tight body. One neck length with a head. Her set is high. She is dry, well muscled.

The belly of the dog is lean, the chest is oval. The legs are proportional to the body length, and due to the long legs, the dog will not look short-legged. The hocks are well developed with good angles.

Wool of different types. It is short and smooth or long and wavy. There are also wire-haired individuals. Most often, the undercoat is small or absent. Bright representatives of the type: dogs with German shepherds, hounds, boxers. True, the latter have a slightly different shape of head.

About dry type

Representatives of this type are most often choleric. They have a strong skeleton that is a little subtle. The muscles in the body are longer, thinner, but stronger. Representatives of this type of rapid puberty. The head has a narrow shape. The transition from the muzzle to the forehead is weak. The skin is elastic, but rather thin and rather dry.

The muzzle is approximately pointed, like a cranial part, pointed. Putting your eyes sideways The lips fit tightly to the teeth and look dry and thin. Representatives are overshot. Oval, wide enough deep chest. The neck is long, muscular. It looks dry.

Long paws have distinct hock joints. Wool can be with both excellent and weak undercoat. She is thin. Representatives of this type are: collies with likes, Dobermans and other breeds. Breeders took modern Dobermans to a strong type.

About the gentle type

Representatives of this type are considered the most non-viable. By temperament, many of them are choleric. They are easily excitable and nervous. They have a thin skeleton, with relatively underdeveloped muscles.

Pets are most often with a round head, a convex forehead. The muzzle is narrow and short. Skill and big eyes.

The head is usually with a round, convex skull, short and narrow muzzle. There are also very shortened muzzles. Pets have a snack, teeth can grow incorrectly, for example, in 2 rows and timely removal of milk is required. There are also double teeth. Because of this, for some, the tongue does not fit in the mouth and the dog holds it out even when the mouth is closed.

The coat can be either long or short, or even curl. There is no undercoat. Representatives of the breed related to dwarf:

Dwarf breeds are most often bred artificially. Certain anatomical features are fixed to them. For example, an elongated body and short-legged dachshund.

The constitution may be mixed. For example, raw and coarse, tender and dry, or strong and dry and in other combinations. Overdevelopment occurs.