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Greenland dog: breed description, care, maintenance, nutrition, photo


Greenlandshund (Bowhead dog)
( Grolandshund, Greenland Dog)

Standard:FCI№ 274.

Belongs to the group:Spitz-shaped >> riding huskies >> Husky.

Homeland:Greenland (Denmark).

DESCRIPTION. Greenlandshund is a typical representative of hardy and strong northern sledding rocks. For this, she has all the data: a powerful and strong body with beautiful muscles and an impenetrable thick coat. The head is proportional to the size of the body, the ears are pointed, triangular. The tail is very magnificent, thrown back. Height at withers up to 64 cm, weight not less than 30 kg. The color is varied: white, gray, black, sometimes with a tan. The Greenlandshund coat is thick, sticking out.

HISTORY. The Greenland dog is perhaps one of the oldest breeds of sled dogs. At home, it is found everywhere and is still considered the most reliable winter vehicle. Sledding requires these dogs to have strength, stamina and endurance, not without reason these strong animals helped Amundsen to come first during the races to the south pole. Although the Greenlandshund is recognized today as an independent breed, it is a standard husky sled dog. One of the riding northern breeds, it has survived to the present day and continues to carry out its work. The invention of snowmobiles and snowmobiles somewhat pushed the use of sled dogs as a vehicle, and many breeds came to naught. Nowadays, Greenlandshund is rarely found in their homeland, although amateurs make great efforts to preserve the breed. In Europe, and even in Scandinavia, this breed is practically not found.

CHARACTERISTIC. Greenland dogs have a great sense of flair and orientation ability, these unpretentious workers are ready to unconditionally do any work. We must not underestimate the hunting instinct still preserved in these dogs: in the past they were used to hunt seals, bears and reindeers. Possessing a sharp temperament by nature, Greenland dogs are always friendly to humans. As guard dogs they are not suitable.

The value of a sled dog is traditionally associated with its strong physique and tirelessness in work. For lovers who do not use working dogs for their intended purpose, this seems completely unacceptable. Sled dogs are usually indifferent to humans, their affection and devotion are only in the desire for hard work. Greenlandshund has a harsh disposition and is designed exclusively for work.

A Greenland dog feels best in a pack, where its own subordination constantly exists, which, however, is not always observed: dogs are not particularly picky in communicating with each other, so fights between them are not uncommon. In communicating with these dogs, a person should also constantly maintain a dominant position and show his will. As in the past, today a Greenland dog is a tireless worker, she constantly needs certain physical activities, such as riding in a harness, so the role of a family dog ​​does not suit her.

To the roots of history

Greenland dog - one of the oldest sled breedsable to survive in the Far North. According to one version, the ancestors of the pets were wild wolves that interbreed with Eskimo dogs. This theory is confirmed by the behavior of dogs, which is characteristic of a wolf pack. The exact origin of the breed has not yet been established, however it is reliably known that the dog was bred purposefully - for transporting sledges and hunting for bears.

Scientists claim that the breed hails from the coastal areas of Greenland, Siberia and Canada. Archaeological finds confirm that pets populated the northern lands more than 5 thousand years ago.

The Vikings settled in Greenland were the first to meet the breed. However, the real popularity came to the pets only after the start of the development of the wild north. Each merchant and whaler contained a "flock" of Greenland dogs, which served not only as a means of transportation, but also an indispensable assistant in hunting.

The breed became famous in Europe in 1936, when Paul Emile Victor brought not only impressions of the northern expedition, but also representatives of the Greenland sledding. Pets began to actively participate in dog shows, taking pride of place. Which caused even greater interest in animals. In 1938, the English Kennel Club developed the international breed standard.

Today, the Greenland population is very small. With the development of technological progress, sleddings were replaced by snowmobiles, and the relevance of the use of the breed has exhausted itself. The number of pets in the hundreds even in the Scandinavian countries. In this regard, active measures are being taken to restore the number of animals and their popularity. One of which was the revival of sled racing.

Greenland Dog: Appearance

The breed standard was adopted in 1997.

According to the ICF classification, a Greenland dog is included in:

  • group 5 - Spitz and primitive breeds,
  • section 1 - northern sled dogs,
  • numbered 274.

Representatives of the Greenland dog breed are large, beautifully built animals with a strong physique and well-developed muscles. The height of an adult at the withers is 60 - 62 cm, the average weight is 33 kg.

The following is a detailed description of the breed standard appearance:

  1. The head is massive. The skull box is voluminous. The forehead is convex. The angle between the forehead and nose is pronounced. The muzzle is wedge-shaped. The nose is large. Color from brown to gray. In the cold, the nose becomes colorless. The lips are thin, tightly pressed to the jaws. The color is usually light. Scissor bite. Eyes of medium size, a little slanting. Look sly, friendly. The color of the iris is usually dark, but individuals with bright eyes are found. The ears are triangular, erect, of medium size. The ends are slightly rounded.
  2. The body is elongated, compact, stocky. The back is slightly inclined from the withers to the tail. The spine is flat. The lumbar region is wide. The neck is short, voluminous, with well-developed muscles. The chest is deep, not wide.
  3. The limbs are straight, sinewy. Shoulders slightly inclined. The elbows are pressed to the sides. The hips are massive. The wrists are movable. Paws are round in shape. Pads are tight. The tail is strong, abandoned on the back, covered with thick hair.
  4. The coat is dense. The undercoat is well developed. The hair on the body is denser than on the head and limbs. The color is very different. Albino individuals are not suitable for exhibitions. The movements are quick and easy. Running without stress.

What is the breed for?

The Greenland dog is a sled breed bred for sledding in extreme climatic conditions. On the native island it is used in hunting for large and small sea animals and bears. Suitable for sports driving on snowy tracks. Not bred as a pet. It does not have the qualities of a guard or security guard. Not contained in warm or hot climates.

Breed features

Greenland has amazing strength for a dog of its size. It can carry a very heavy load, overcoming not only the luggage resistance, but also adverse weather conditions. Snow or blizzard, polar night - all this is nothing for a team of sled dogs, led by the leader.The dog, whose ancestors lived for many centuries in harsh conditions and performed the same work, has a special character. A Greenland dog is a strong, independent and human-friendly animal, guided in everyday life by instincts, and not acquired knowledge. This is the main reason why representatives of this breed are almost impossible to meet outside the North.

The main thing for Greenland is not the owner at all, but the leader of the pack.

Since Greenland dogs live in a pack, they have a very developed sense of dominance. The leader is subject to the remaining members of the team, recognizing his superiority and obeying while moving. The leader sets the direction, stops the team in case of danger and begins the battle with predators. But during camps, in a flock, fights often occur during which minor members are eager to take the place of the leader.

A Greenland dog cannot be a watchman, because it does not see a threat in a person. It is possible to hunt with greenland, especially violently the dogs react to their eternal natural enemy: the polar bear.

As a pet, greenland is absolutely unsuitable, as it was created for life among relatives, does not become too attached to people, without experiencing closeness with the owner. This is a restrained and severe dog, experiencing joy only from work.

Maintenance and care

It is best to give preference to active sports: joint jogging, cycling, agility. The pet can live quietly on the street, as the body hardened in the northern expanses tolerates coolness and frost. In the summer, it is recommended to keep the dog in the house or build shelter from the sun. Pets do not tolerate heat, and even a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius already causes a lot of discomfort.

The Greenland dog is one of the most healthy and hardy breeds. Northern conditions leave no room for weakness, only the strongest survive. The conducted studies did not reveal hereditary diseases in the breed representatives.

Caring for pets is extremely simple - you need to comb out the hair once every few weeks. Thus, you will prevent the formation of tangles. Bathing is indicated only in case of severe contamination of the coat. It is not necessary to trim the claws, as the active lifestyle of the dog leads to their natural grinding.

The main animal diet is protein food. Basically, it is boiled meat of all sorts except pork. Fish can also be given to the dog, however, before serving, thoroughly clear the bones of the marine dish. In addition to meat, cereals and dairy products should be given.

Care must be taken when using carbohydrates in a pet's menu. Excessive number of them negatively affects the working qualities of the breed, can make the dog lazy and inactive.

Like Siberian huskies, Greenlandshound needs regular combing. The interval between procedures can be from 2 to 3 weeks. The spring molt in these dogs is very strong, the hair falls literally to shreds and it will not be possible to cope without daily grooming. In autumn, hairs fall out less abundantly, but you will have to comb out a Greenland husky more often than usual.

The eyes of the dog must be periodically examined and the secretions removed with a damp cloth. Ears are cleaned weekly with special products. Greenland husky teeth are brushed twice a week using a dog brush and toothpaste to avoid tartar. Despite the large claws, you don’t need to cut them; they grind perfectly during running.

Running is the basis of the life of a Greenland dog. She needs to walk for at least 3 hours a day, moreover at a high pace. A great option would be to accompany your pet with jogging, cycling, skiing or a snowmobile.

The Greenlandshund loves freedom, and if overlooked by the owner, it can go AWOL and wander. Therefore, it is advisable to walk the dog on a leash.

Representatives of the breed are independent and freedom-loving in nature. Dogs work perfectly in a pack, while building a hierarchy of power among themselves. The nature of the dog is northern. These are faithful, persistent, reliable, faithful animals.

Hunter instincts are significantly developed in these dogs, as representatives of the breed are currently actively used for hunting. But with all this, the guards from the dogs are dubious. They are friendly to strangers, do not seek to protect the territory.

The individuals of the breed clearly expressed working qualities. It is better not to have such a pet as a sofa doggie. A beautiful Greenland sled dog strives to be useful and will not lie on the carpet around the clock. The owner should provide the animal with sufficient physical activity and training.

The representatives of the breed are balanced. They will not show aggression, easily makes contact with other animals. These dogs are loyal to the owner, but will not show it openly. The animal always keeps household members in its field of vision, but will not curl around people, throw itself under its feet.

With a lack of care for the dog, she can run away. The presence of wild genes that are rampant in the character of a dog can take over, because individuals of the breed are prone to vagrancy. For this reason, it is worth devoting a lot of time to a pet, paying due attention to development and upbringing.

These animals are prone to dominance in the family, for this reason periodically it must be shown to him who is the master in the house. In dogs, the instinct of communicating with sounds is largely developed. If the pet is not satisfied, he will grumble when he is in an excited state - barking, during the demonstration of his humility, the animal begins to whine.


The main field of application for the Greenland dog is horse-drawn riding. A strong compact physique, a dense coat of wool and a stubborn character allow them to run long over rough terrain, regardless of weather conditions. Greenlandshound is well-versed in the area, works well in a team with a person and other dogs.

Courage, developed intelligence and a large supply of energy allow you to use the Greenland husky on the hunt for corral animals such as seals, deer and polar bears. Dogs have a pronounced hunting instinct and can work with both small and large animals.

The sporting characteristics of a Greenland dog do not extend beyond driving disciplines. The breed does not show decent results in sports such as freestyle or agility. Despite the good performance of obedience at the races, in a more relaxed atmosphere, the likes react more slowly to the teams.

Due to the friendly attitude to strangers, these sled dogs cannot be used as watchmen, but they grow up as faithful companions. A Greenland dog will enjoy spending time with an active owner.


The specificity of the sledding teams made Greenlandshound herd animals. It is preferable to keep the Greenland huskies a pair, or in the company of a breed similar in size and disposition. The dog communicates well with other dogs, prefers a strict hierarchy and easily follows the leader. Males can fight quite violently for their place in the pack or the location of the female. Unfamiliar animals and alien pets excite the hunting instinct and thirst for chase in the Greenlanders.

Greenland dogs are somewhat phlegmatic, do not show interest in strangers, rather seem indifferent. Dogs are not aggressive and are very friendly to the family of their owner. Strict upbringing, teamwork well develop loyalty and devotion in these animals.

Training Features

  • the Greenman is very comprehensible and obedient, the developed qualities of industriousness “force” the dog to stubbornly execute commands, improving his skills over and over again,
  • this breed can show obstinacy and independence, pets obey only a person with pronounced qualities of a leader,
  • rough treatment and oppressive methods are not applicable to the pet,
  • households with no experience in keeping dogs, it is recommended to give the pet to a dog handler for training, as problems with self-training can occur,
  • start puppy training from the very first day of his appearance in the family circle,
  • dogs have an instinct of repetition, so if the house already has an animal that executes commands, the training process will be greatly simplified.

Greenland dog - is it worth it to start?

Each breed has its advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended to get a northern pet if you live in temperate latitudes. Since a hot climate is contraindicated in dogs. The Greenman requires attention from the owner, as well as providing work (training, walking). It’s great if you start using the dog “for its intended purpose”. Take him on a hunt, for example.

The positive qualities of a pet include the following: a sharp scent, endurance, good-natured character, mobility and playfulness, an excellent companion in sports, a faithful companion.

The disadvantage of the breed is regular “sound signals”, with the help of which the dog shares its emotions with others. Please note that the breed is prone to dominance and self-reliance. With a lack of attention can escape. The Greenman is not suitable for guarding a private house, as he shows friendliness and hospitality to strangers.

How to choose a puppy

The breed of Greenland dogs is not particularly popular outside the northern regions. Finding a purebred puppy is not easy, so you should not choose a future pet from a photo on the Internet.

A thoroughbred baby should meet the following parameters:

    healthy appearance, the hair should be clean, eyes and ears without secretions, active behavior, the absence of breed defects, the presence of a mark or chip.

In addition, a Greenland husky puppy must have a metric and a veterinary passport, and his parents a documented pedigree and working diplomas. Often in the photo appear dogs with eyes of different colors. It is worth knowing that this quality is a vice for the Greenland husky, which means puppies with heterochromia cannot participate in exhibitions and mating.

Origin history

Greenland husky has a natural origin. Human intervention was to select the strongest and most hardy animals for further breeding. Geographically, the ancestors of Greenlandshund belong to the northern part of Canada, Alaska, Siberia and Greenland. Most likely for the first time sled dogs began to use nomadic tribes 6 thousand years ago. Strong dogs dragged teams and loads, helped to hunt, warmed in severe weather conditions. Together with the Inuit settlers, the animals came to Greenland, where this unique working breed was formed in isolated island conditions.

Greenland Laika actively participated in the development of the northern lands, starting from the 18th century. At the same time, they were brought to the UK, where fans of the breed were soon found. Already in 1875, this sled dog participated in the exhibition, and in 1880 was recognized by the English Club of Dog Breeders. The International Kennel Federation registered the breed in 1997.

Breed standard

The international Greenland Dog breed standard was adopted in 1997 and has not changed since 2003. The main physical characteristics of the Greenland husky are:

  1. The length of the dog’s body corresponds to the height at the withers, as 11 to 10.
  2. The head consists of a wide convex skull with a middle foot and a wedge-shaped muzzle.
  3. Lips strongly adhere to a powerful jaw with a scissor bite.
  4. The nose is large, dark in color, which can lighten in winter.
  5. Small triangular ears look confidently upward, their position can determine the mood of a Greenland dog.
  6. Eyes with a dark iris corresponding to the color are not set deep, with a slight bevel.
  7. The neck is short with strong muscles.
  8. The straight back goes into the wide lower back and the inclined croup.
  9. The chest is wide, with good depth.
  10. The fluffy thick tail of the Greenland husky is high, can bend or curl over its back.
  11. The legs are straight and strong, with flexible joints and large round paws.

Greenland dogs have a dense coat. The outer hair is always straight and hard, and the undercoat is very dense and soft. The cover of the head, front and hind legs is much shorter than on the trunk and tail. Wool should have a single color or two-tone color, with the exception of pure white.

The Greenland sled dog has a specific character. This animal is always confident, quite independent and stubborn. The dog has a strong spirit, and his tenacity sometimes borders on obstinacy. The owner must have the willpower and make every effort to prove to the dog his leading position.

Greenland husky does not require constant attention and can easily tolerate even a change of owner.

Like most working dogs, the Greenlandshund does not show interest in regular dog games, but will happily keep company on a jogging or bike ride. The breed is sociable, actively expresses emotions, likes to bark, growl and whine. In rare cases, dogs exhibit wild, wolfish habits.

Features of care and maintenance

Bred in harsh Arctic conditions, a Greenland dog prefers an aviary on the street. At home, this breed is even kept on a chain by the booth. Laika is planted in private houses, equipping a spacious aviary with a place to relax and a dense shadow for the summer. Dense hair in combination with good immunity makes it possible to tolerate winter well and even sleep in the snow, but the Greenlandshound does not tolerate summer heat.

A Greenland dog is not suitable for free keeping or living in a city apartment. In the first case, the dog can run away or fight with neighboring pets, and in the second, it will not have enough space to dump energy.

Like Siberian huskies, Greenlandshound needs regular combing. The interval between procedures can be from 2 to 3 weeks. The spring molt in these dogs is very strong, the hair falls literally to shreds and it will not be possible to cope without daily grooming. In autumn, hairs fall out less abundantly, but you will have to comb out a Greenland husky more often than usual.

The eyes of the dog must be periodically examined and the secretions removed with a damp cloth. Ears are cleaned weekly with special products. Greenland husky teeth are brushed twice a week using a dog brush and toothpaste to avoid tartar. Despite the large claws, you don’t need to cut them; they grind perfectly during running.

Running is the basis of the life of a Greenland dog. She needs to walk for at least 3 hours a day, moreover at a high pace. A great option would be to accompany your pet with jogging, cycling, skiing or a snowmobile.

The Greenlandshund loves freedom, and if overlooked by the owner, it can go AWOL and wander. Therefore, it is advisable to walk the dog on a leash.

Greenland husky as well as Husky and Alaskan Malamute require increased nutrition, especially in winter. Despite the fact that they are able to do without a normal meal for a long time, it is not worthwhile to expose them to malnutrition. Food is given twice a day to adult animals, puppies are fed 2 times more often.

Protein components make up the diet, 2/3 of the diet consists of meat and offal. The rest is divided between cereals and fermented milk products. It is forbidden to give tubular bones, legumes, starchy vegetables, spicy, sweet, salty and spicy to a Greenland dog. When using dry feed, you need to choose specialized mixes of high quality.

The Greenland sled dog has developed immunity. Their life expectancy reaches 14 years and is dependent on the conditions of detention, food quality and basic care.

Due to the natural development in the wild north, the Greenlandshund received excellent health.

Timely visits to the veterinarian, preventive vaccinations and deworming allow the dog to live his whole life without any problems.


Hereditary diseases in a Greenland dog are extremely rare. On average, there is a 3% chance that a dog may encounter pathologies such as:

    stomach upset, cryptochism, gyroteriosis, allergic skin reactions in the form of eczema, hip dysplasia.

Despite good health, a Greenland dog needs regular vaccination. The schedule of vaccinations will be made by the attending veterinarian, but the general scheme is as follows:

  1. For the first time, a puppy is vaccinated between the ages of 6 and 8 weeks of life.
  2. After 2 weeks, revaccination is carried out with the same agent.
  3. The third vaccine is given in 6-7 months.
  4. The fourth and subsequent vaccinations - every 12 months.

10 days before each vaccination, the Greenlandshund is given anthelmintic drugs. It is advisable to use a complex vaccine that protects against plague, parvovirus, parainfluenza, Lyme disease, leptospirosis and rabies. After vaccination for about 7 days, it is necessary to observe quarantine and avoid contact of the pet with other animals.

For admission to mating, Greenland sled dogs must meet the following requirements:

    clean breed, good health, confirmed by a veterinarian, adequate behavior, successful completion of work trials, the female should have less than 7 litters with an interval of at least six months, the first mating of the male is recommended not earlier than 15 months of age, the female is not older than 9 years, and not less than 15 months old.

How much do puppies cost?

Greenland dogs, by virtue of their rarity, have a high cost, which depends on the purity of the pedigree, working diplomas of the parents, the age of the puppies and their class. In the search for a companion, it is worthwhile to dwell on the kids of the pet class, which have breed flaws, but cost about 45 thousand rubles. Available for subsequent breeding breeding class will cost 160-300 thousand. But a puppy from parents-champions, fully consistent with the international standard, can have a price of more than 300 thousand.

The majority of Greenland dog breeders are concentrated in their homeland, in Scandinavia and Canada. You can buy a desired puppy abroad, but in no case from a photo on the Internet. In Russia, there is one breeding nursery "Jano", located in Moscow, where you can buy a small Greenland or Alaskan Malamute (https://vk.com/malamuts_zhano).

Greenland likes with a Nordic character are perfect for outdoor enthusiasts and gambling races. Low content requirements, endurance even in the harshest climates make them reliable companions for residents of the northern regions.